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free read Strawberry Days 106 ç Strawberry Days tells the vivid and moving tale of the creation and destruction of a Japanese immigrant community Before World War II Bellevue the now booming edge city on the outskirts of Seattle was a prosperous farm town renowned for its strawberries Many of its farmers were recent Japanese immigrants who despite being rejecteEred documents to weave together the history of this community and the racist schemes that prevented the immigrants from reclaiming their land after the war Ultimately Strawberry Days represents than one community's story reminding us that bigotry's roots are deeply entwined in the very fiber of American socie. This is a good book to read if you don’t know a lot about Asian American history and specifically 20th century Japanese American history It is a good book to read if you live in Seattle or near Bellevue Washington It emerged from a series of articles called “Camps of Infamy” published by the former news editor for the Bellevue Journal American now King County Journal The author did a lot of reading and the book provides a narrative history of much material in many current academic works Ultimately the book is not in conversation with other academic tracts Its point is to tell a story to the public and provide a remembrance of the relationship between Bellevue’s history and Japanese American history In talking both about Japanese American farmers and Japanese American loggers and forestry workers the book really cut at areas of my own personal interest and research I really enjoyed the details here that I wasn’t already familiar with The traditional narrative is enriched by the specifics of life in Bellevue and the growth of the town alongside the changes in the Japanese American community At the heart of the story is Japanese American agriculture Japanese American agricultural labor was key to the production of the Strawberry which was key to the Strawberry festival which was at the heart of Bellevue’s identity as a town Of course the Japanese Americans whose labor produced the strawberries were often too busy in strawberry season to truly participate in the festivities and they weren’t really included in any meaningful way anyhow When they were interned the Strawberry Festival died; it was reborn in 1970 but without local strawberries and without the Japanese Americans who labor made the original festival possibleThe epilogue speaks about how Nisei responded to 911 and the way for many it awakened nightmares of the camps Moreover “Most came out of the concentration camp ordeal swearing to prevent such a fate ever befalling Americans again and they now feel duty bound to speak up” He attacks and analyses conservative Filipino author Michelle Malkin’s In Defense of Internment showing how it repeats the yellow peril myth for todaySources The bulk of the material comes from a series of oral history completed by the author This is backed up by impressive and extensive reading of the secondary sources

read ✓ PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB Ë David Neiwert

Espite being rejected by white society were able to make a living cultivating the rich soil Yet the lives they created for themselves through years of hard work vanished almost instantly after the bombing of Pearl Harbor David Neiwert combines compelling story telling with first hand interviews and newly uncov. Growing up in Bellevue WA I have watched it grow from a sleepy Seattle suburb to a large city but what was it before This book follows the history of the region from the perspective of the Japanese farmers who turned the forests into rich farmlands only to be ripped away from their homes and placed in concentration camps during WWII The book is very well researched and detailed regarding Japanese immigration despite rabid anti Asian sentiments of the early 20th century It is sometimes painful to read the ignorant hatred that spewed from our local and national leaders It also documents the internment the noble service of Japanese Americans during WWII and how the internment changed their lives

David Neiwert Ë 6 characters

Strawberry DaysStrawberry Days tells the vivid and moving tale of the creation and destruction of a Japanese immigrant community Before World War II Bellevue the now booming edge city on the outskirts of Seattle was a prosperous farm town renowned for its strawberries Many of its farmers were recent Japanese immigrants who d. Most books about the internment are about the entire group of Japanese Americans or they focus on maybe one family or a couple of particular people This book on the other hand examines an entire community to see what the effects of the internment had on the community itselfBellevue Washington is the community in which there were a lot of persons of Japanese ancestry There's material on the pre war prejudice against the Chinese and the Japanese Americans and the various anti Japanese organizations that formedOne of the things that to me shows well the irrational degree of hatred are some of the newspaper headlines from that time such asThe Yellow Peril How Japanese Crowd Out the White RaceJapanese a Menace to American Womenand my favorite of them all Brown Artisans Steal Brains of WhitesThe Japanese living there did a lot farming and managed to take land that was considered too poor to grow crops and somewhat turn it into good farming land selling their produce in the town This was one of the major arguments the whites had against the Japanese Americans over how they could get poor land to produce good crops The rational thing to do would have been to observe the farming habits of the Japanese and then copied those methods on to their own land Instead the white farmers were apparently not of the highest mentality and they preferred to drive out their competition rather than learn from themThe book also examines what happened to a lot of specific people in the Japanese American community around and in Bellevue Once they were moved out of Bellevue in the evacuation and internment it became evident that the strong coherence of their families was breaking apart The Issei could not become American citizens by law The children did not necessarily eat with their families and the discipline of the family fell apartFurther the families were encouraged to settle elsewhere and not many returned to Bellevue basically destroying the once strong Japanese American community that had been thereThis is a good book on the subject since it examines the history leading up to how their community was broken up and what happened to them in the internment campsThe Evacuated PeopleIn the interest of both accuracy and fairness it is important to distinguish sharply between the residents of relocation centers and the militarists of Imperial Japan Two thirds of the people in the centers are American citizens born in this country and educated for the most part in American public schools At all centers the residents have bought thousands of dollars worth of war bonds and have made significant contributions to the American Red Cross Many of them have sons husbands and brothers in the United States Army Even the aliens among them have nearly all lived in the United States for two decades or longer And it is important to remember that these particular aliens have been denied the privilege of gaining American citizenship under our lawsIt is also important to distinguish between the residents of relocation centers and civilian internees Under our laws aliens of enemy nationality who are found guilty of acts or intentions against the security of the Nation are being confined in internment camps which are administered not by the War Relocation Authority but by the Department of Justice American citizens suspected of subversive activities are being handled through the ordinary courts The residents of the relocation centers however have never been found guilty either individually or collectively of any such acts or intentions They are merely a group of American residents who happen to have Japanese ancestors and who happened to be living in a potential combat zone shortly after the outbreak of war All evidence available to the War Relocation Authority indicates that the great majority of them are completely loyal to the United StatesThe Relocation CentersThe physical standards of life in the relocation centers have never been much above the bare subsistence level For some few of the evacuees these standards perhaps represent a slight improvement over those enjoyed before evacuation But for the great majority of the evacuated people the environment of the centers despite all efforts to make them livable remains subnormal and probably always will In spite of the leave privileges the movement of evacuees while they reside at the centers is necessarily somewhat restricted and a certain feeling of isolation and confinement is almost inevitableHousing is provided for the evacuee residents of the centers in tarpaper covered barracks of simple frame construction without plumbing or cooking facilities of any kind Most of these barracks are partitioned off so that a family of five or six for example will normally occupy a single room 25 by 20 feet Bachelors and other unattached evacuees live mainly in unpartitioned barracks which have been established as dormitories The only furnishings provided by the Government in the residence barracks are standard Army cots and blankets and small heating stoves One bath laundry and toilet building is available for each block of barracks and is shared by upwards of 250 peopleFood is furnished by the Government for all evacuee residents The meals are planned at an average cost of not than 45 cents per person per day the actual cost as this is written has averaged about 40 cents are prepared by evacuee cooks and are served generally cafeteria style in mess halls that accommodate between 250 and 300 persons At all centers Government owned or Government leased farmlands are being operated by evacuee agricultural crews to produce a considerable share of the vegetables needed in the mess halls At nearly all centers the farm program also includes production of poultry eggs and pork; and at a few the evacuees are raising beef and dairy products Every evacuee is subject to the same food rationing restrictions as all other residents of the United StatesMedical care is available to all evacuee residents of relocation centers without charge Hospitals have been built at all the centers and are manned in large part by doctors nurses nurses' aides and technicians from the evacuee population Simple dental and optical services are also provided and special care is given to infants and nursing mothers Evacuees reuesting special medical services not available at the centers are reuired to pay for the cost of such services At all centers in view of the crowded and abnormal living conditions special sanitary precautions are necessary to safeguard the community health and prevent the outbreak of epidemicsWork opportunities of many kinds are made available to able bodied evacuee residents at the relocation centers The policy of WRA is to make the fullest possible use of evacuee skills and manpower in all jobs that are essential to community operations Evacuees are employed in the mess halls on the farms in the hospitals on the internal police force in construction and road maintenance work in clerical and stenographic jobs and in many other lines of activity Most of those who work are paid at the rate of 16 a month for a 44 hour week Apprentices and others reuiring close supervision receive 12 while those with professional skills supervisory responsibilities or unusually difficult duties are paid 19 In addition each evacuee working at a relocation center receives a small monthly allowance for the purchase of work clothing for himself and personal clothing for his dependents Opportunities for economic gain in the ordinary sense are almost completely lacking to the residents of the centersEducation through the high school level is provided by WRA for all school age residents of the relocation centers High schools are being built at most of the centers but grade school classes will continue to be held in barrack buildings which have been converted for classroom use Courses of study have been planned and teachers have been selected in close collaboration with State departments of education and in conformity with prevailing State standards Roughly one half of the teachers in the schools have been recruited from the evacuee population Japanese language schools of the type common on the west coast prior to evacuation are expressly forbidden at all relocation centersVocational training is provided at relocation centers as a part of the regular school program for youngsters and in connection with the employment program for adults The purpose of this training is twofold 1 To euip the evacuee residents so that they will be able to play a productive role in agriculture or industry outside the centers and 2 to provide potential replacements at the centers for those who go out on indefinite leaveInternal security at each relocation center is maintained by a special police force composed largely of able bodied evacuee residents and headed by a nonevacuee chief plus a few nonevacuee assistants Misdemeanors and other similar offenses are ordinarily handled within the center either by the Project Director or by a judicial commission made up of evacuee residents The maximum penalty for such offenses is imprisonment or suspension of work and compensation privileges for a period of 3 months Major criminal cases are turned over to the outside courts having appropriate jurisdiction At each center the exterior boundaries are guarded by a company of military police who may be called into the center in cases of emergency The Federal Bureau of Investigation is also called in from time to time as the need arisesConsumer enterprises such as stores canteens barber shops and shoe repair establishments are maintained at the relocation centers in order that the residents may purchase goods and services which are not provided as part of the regular subsistence These enterprises are all self supporting and are managed by the evacuee residents mainly on a consumer cooperative basis Each resident is eligible for membership in the relocation center cooperative association and all members are entitled to patronage dividends which are derived from the profits and based on the individual volume of purchases As rapidly as possible the cooperative associations are being incorporated under appropriate lawsEvacuee government is practiced in one form or another at every relocation center In some of the centers formal charters have been drawn up and evacuee governments roughly paralleling those found in ordinary cities of similar size have been established In others evacuee participation in community government has been along informal lines and has consisted largely of conferences held by small groups of key residents with the Project Director whenever important decisions affecting the population must be reached The evacuee governmental set up is not in any sense a substitute for the administration provided by the WRA Project Director and his staff but residents are encouraged to assume responsibility for many phases of community managementReligion is practiced at relocation centers with the same freedom that prevails throughout the United States Nearly half of the evacuees are Christian church members No church buildings have been provided by the Government but ordinary barracks are used for services by Protestants Catholics and Buddhists alike Ministers and priests from the evacuee population are free to carry on their religious activities at the centers and may also hold other jobs in connection with the center administration Such workers however are not paid by WRA for the performance of their religious dutiesLeisure time activities at the centers are planned and organized largely by the evacuee residents The WRA merely furnishes advice and guidance and makes certain areas and buildings available for recreational purposes At each center recreational activities of one sort or another have been organized for all groups of residents from the smallest children to the oldest men and women Local branches of national organizations such as the Red Cross the YMCA the YWCA and the Boy Scouts are definitely encouraged At some of the centers athletic contests are arranged periodically with teams from nearby townsStudent RelocationAlthough the War Relocation Authority is placing first emphasis on relocation of evacuees in private employment student evacuees are also being permitted to leave the centers for the purpose of beginning or continuing a higher education Applicants for student leave must meet the same reuirements as all other applicants for indefinite leave and are permitted to enroll only at institutions where no objection to the attendance of evacuee students has been raised by either the War or Navy Department The WRA provides no financial assistance to evacuees going out on student leaveConservation of Evacuee PropertyWhen 110000 people of Japanese descent were evacuated from the Pacific coast military area during the spring and summer of 1942 they left behind in their former locations an estimated total of approximately 200000000 worth of real commercial and personal property These properties range from simple household appliances to extensive commercial and agricultural holdingsAt the time of evacuation many of the evacuees disposed of their properties especially their household goods in uick sales that freuently involved heavy financial losses The majority however placed their household furnishings in storage and retained their interest in other holdings even after they were personally transferred to relocation centers Since these people are now in the position of absentee owners and since many of their properties are highly valuable in the war production effort the War Relocation Authority is actively assisting them to keep their commercial and agricultural properties in productive use through lease or sale and is helping them in connection with a wide variety of other property problemsTo carry out this work the Authority maintains an Evacuee Property Office in San Francisco with branches in Los Angeles and Seattle and employs an Evacuee Property Officer on the staff at each relocation center Two principal types of service are rendered In connection with personal properties such as household furnishings the Authority provides at the option of the evacuee owners either storage in a Government warehouse located within the evacuated area or transportation at Government expense to a point of residence outside In connection with real estate commercial holdings farm machinery and other similar properties the Authority acts in the role of intermediary or agent At the reuest of evacuee property holders it attempts to find potential buyers or tenants arranges for the rental or sale of both commercial and agricultural holdings checks inventories of stored personal goods audits accounts rendered to evacuees and performs a variety of similar services Any person who is interested in buying or leasing the property of evacuees should communicate with the nearest Evacuee Property Office in the West Coast evacuated areaWherever possible these offices will try to put potential buyers or tenants in touch with potential sellers or lessors among the evacuee population It should be emphasized however that the WRA has no authority to reuisition the property of evacuees and cannot force any resident of a relocation center to sell or lease against his will Final agreement on terms is solely a matter between the parties directly involved